Poultry Birds in Nigeria, Poultry birds are domesticated birds kept by humans for his or her eggs, their meat or their feathers. These birds are most typically members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the Galliformes (which includes chickens, quails, and turkeys).
The word “poultry” comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which suggests small animal.
The domestication of poultry happened several thousand years ago.
Domesticated chickens may are used for cockfighting initially and quail kept for his or her songs, but soon it had been realised how useful it had been having a captive-bred source of food.
Pig meat is one of the most eatable meat in the, with over 70% of the meat supply in 2012 between them; poultry provides nutritionally beneficial food containing high-quality protein amid a coffee proportion of fat. All poultry meat should be properly handled and sufficiently cooked so as to scale back the danger of gastrointestinal disorder.
Poultry Birds short Overview
|Chicken||Red Junglefowl||Southeast Asia||Eggs and Flesh|
|Duck||Mallard||Various||Eggs and Flesh|
|Guinea fowl||Helmeted guineafowl||Africa||Flesh|
|Goose||Greylag||Various||Eggs and flesh|
|Pigeon||Rock Dove||Middle East||Flesh|
Chickens are medium-sized, chunky birds with an upright stance and characterised by fleshy red combs and wattles on their heads. Males, referred to as cocks, are usually larger, more boldly coloured, and have more exaggerated plumage than females (hens). They seldom fly except as a result of perceived danger, preferring to run into the undergrowth if approached.
Today’s domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is especially descended from the wild red junglefowl of Asia, with some additional input from grey junglefowl. Domestication is believed to possess taken place between 7,000 and. By 4,000 years ago, chickens seem to possess reached the Indus Valley and 250 years later, they arrived in Egypt. They were still used for fighting and were considered symbols of fertility.
The Romans used them in divination, Since their domestication, an outsized number of breeds of chickens are established, but with the exception of the white Leghorn, most commercial birds are of hybrid origin. In about 1800, chickens began to be kept on a bigger scale, and modern high-output poultry farms were present within the UK from around 1920 and have become established within us soon after the Second war.
Poultry breeding has produced breeds and strains to fulfil different needs; light-framed, egg-laying birds which will produce 300 eggs a year; fast-growing, fleshy birds destined for consumption at a young age, and utility birds which produce both a suitable number of eggs and a well-fleshed carcase.
Male birds are unwanted within the egg-laying industry and may often be identified as soon as they hatch for subsequent culling. In meat breeds, these birds are sometimes castrated (often chemically) to stop aggression. The resulting bird, called a capon, has more tender and flavorful meat, as well.
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A bantam may be a small sort of domestic chicken, either a miniature version of a member of a typical breed or a “true bantam” with no larger counterpart. The name derives from the town of Bantam in Java where European sailors bought the local small chickens for his or her shipboard supplies. Bantams could also be 1 / 4 to a 3rd of the dimensions of ordinary birds and lay similarly small eggs. they’re kept by small-holders and hobbyists for egg production, use as broody hens, ornamental purposes, and shows.
Ducks are medium-sized aquatic birds with broad bills, eyes on the side of the top, fairly long necks, short legs set far back on the body, and webbed feet. Males, referred to as drakes, are often larger than females (known as hens) and are differently coloured in some breeds.
Domestic ducks are omnivores, eating a spread of animal and plant materials like aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, small amphibians, waterweeds, and grasses. They feed shallow water by dabbling, with their heads underwater and their tails upended.
Most domestic ducks are too heavy to fly, and that they are social birds, preferring to measure and move around together in groups. They keep their plumage waterproof by preening, a process that spreads the secretions of the uropygial gland over their feathers.
Clay models of ducks found in China dating back to 4000 BC may indicate the domestication of ducks happened there during the Yangshao culture. albeit this is often not the case, domestication of the duck happened within the Far East a minimum of 1500 years before within the West.
Lucius Columella, writing within the first century BC, advised those that sought to rear ducks to gather wildfowl eggs and put them under a brood hen, because when raised during this way, the ducks “lay aside their wild nature and without hesitation breed when shut up within the bird pen”.
Despite this, ducks didn’t appear in agricultural texts in Western Europe until about 810 AD, once they began to be mentioned alongside geese, chickens, and peafowl as getting used for rental payments made by tenants to landowners.
It is widely agreed that the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is that the ancestor of all breeds of domestic duck (with the exception of the musk duck (Cairina moschata), which isn’t closely associated with other ducks). Ducks are farmed mainly for his or her meat, eggs, and down.
As is that the case with chickens, various breeds are developed, selected for egg-laying ability, fast growth, and a well-covered carcase. the foremost common commercial breed within the UK and therefore us is that the Pekin duck, which may lay 200 eggs a year and may reach a weight of three .5 kg (7.7 lb) in 44 days.
within the Western world, ducks aren’t as popular as chickens, because the latter produce larger quantities of white, lean meat and are easier to stay intensively, making the worth of chicken meat less than that of duck meat. While popular in cuisine, duck appears less frequently within the mass-market food industry. However, things are different within the East.
Ducks are more popular there than chickens and are mostly still herded within the traditional way and selected for his or her ability to seek out sufficient food in harvested rice fields and other wet environments.
The fine down of both is valued to be used in pillows and padded garments. They forage on grass and weeds, supplementing this with small invertebrates, and one among the attractions of rearing geese is their ability to grow and thrive on a grass-based system. they’re very gregarious and have good memories and may be allowed to roam widely within the knowledge that they’re going to return home by dusk. The Chinese goose is more aggressive and noisy than other geese and may be used as a guard animal to warn of intruders.
The birds are killed either around 10 or about 24 weeks. Between these ages, problems with dressing the carcase occur due to the presence of developing pin feathers.
In some countries, geese and ducks are force-fed to supply livers with an exceptionally high-fat content for the assembly of pate de foie gras. pate de foie gras is taken into account a luxury in many parts of the planet, but the method of feeding the birds during this way is banned in many countries on animal welfare grounds.
Turkeys are large birds, their nearest relatives being the pheasant and therefore the guineafowl. Males are larger than females and have to spread, fan-shaped tails and distinctive, fleshy wattles, called a snood, that hang from the highest of the beak and are utilized in courtship display. Wild turkeys can fly but seldom do so, preferring to run with an extended, straddling gait.
. They used the feathers for robes, blankets, and ceremonial purposes. quite 1,000 years later, they became a crucial food source. the primary Europeans to encounter the bird misidentified it as a guineafowl, a bird referred to as a “turkey fowl” at that point because it had been introduced into Europe via Turkey.
Commercial turkeys are usually reared indoors under controlled conditions. These are often large buildings, purpose-built to supply ventilation and low light intensities (this reduces the birds’ activity and thereby increases the speed of weight gain).
The lights are often switched on for 24-hrs/day, or a variety of step-wise light regimens to encourage the birds to feed often and thus grow rapidly. Females achieve slaughter weight at about 15 weeks aged and males at about 19. Mature commercial birds could also be twice as heavy as their wild counterparts.
many various breeds are developed, but the bulk of economic birds are white, as this improves the looks of the dressed carcass, the pin feathers being less visible.
Turkeys were at just one occasion mainly consumed on special occasions like Christmas (10 million birds within the United Kingdom) or Thanksgiving (60 million birds within the United States). However, they’re increasingly becoming a part of the everyday diet in many parts of the planet.
originated in southern Africa, and therefore the species most frequently kept as poultry is that the helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris). it’s a medium-sized grey or speckled bird with a little naked head with colourful wattles and a knob on top and was domesticated by the time of the traditional Greeks and Romans.
guinea are hardy, sociable birds that subsist mainly on insects, but also consume grasses and seeds. they’re going to keep a kitchen garden beyond pests and can eat the ticks that carry Lyme disease. They happily roost in trees and provides a loud vocal warning of the approach of predators. Their flesh and eggs are often eaten within the same way as chickens, young birds being ready for the table at the age of about four months.
A squab is that the name given to the young of domestic pigeons that are destined for the table. Like other domesticated pigeons, birds used for this purpose are descended from the rock dove (Columba livia). Special utility breeds with desirable characteristics are used.
Two eggs are laid and incubated for about 17 days. once they hatch, the squabs are fed by both parents on “pigeon’s milk”, a thick secretion high in the protein produced by the crop.
Squabs grow rapidly, but are slow to fledge and are able to leave the nest at 26 to 30 days weighing about 500 g (18 oz). By this point, the adult pigeons will have laid and been incubating another pair of eggs and a prolific pair should produce two squabs every four weeks during a breeding season lasting several months.
requirements for fixing and raising poultry birds in Nigeria
requirements for fixing and raising poultry birds in Nigeria
The following are the key points of the new egg ham cage manufacturer Dajia Machinery for the two points of hatching chicks summarized by the farmers for requirements for fixing and raising poultry birds in Nigeria. I hope that the above description can help the farmers, except that the hatching of the chicks is that the quality and quantity of the chicks are often associated with the breeding. additionally, to the advantages of the household, the feeding of the chicks is additionally an important stage. it’s associated with the egg production performance and health of the adult laying hens. The farmers can ask the article “Feeding Management Points in Chicken Cage Chickens” to know the most points of raising chickens.
1. Ventilation embryos require fresh air for requirements for fixing and raising poultry birds in Nigeria. Each chicken should have ventilation of 0.002-0.01m per hour and a hatching period of 0.004-0.015m?.
The CO2 content within the machine shouldn’t exceed 05%. If it reaches 1%, the embryo is slow to develop and therefore the death rate increases. Therefore, there should be a niche between every two layers of egg trays for ventilation.
The wind speed inside the machine should generally not exceed 2 m / s, the airflow route should be appropriate, in order that the temperature of every point is uniform.
2, the ingredient features a high-fat content, a light-weight weight, easy to float and adhesion to the shell membrane for requirements for fixing and raising poultry birds in Nigeria.
Therefore, eggs must be turned frequently during the time period. Turning the eggs also allows the embryos to be evenly heated, helping the embryos to manoeuvre and ensuring normal fetal position. Generally, it should be turned over once every 2-3 hours.
The movement should be light, steady and slow. The angle of the egg should be ±45°. When hatching, the eggs should be turned the wrong way up to stay the air chamber during a normal position. After entering the hatching period, no more eggs are going to be turned.