Poultry production in Ghana

Poultry production in Ghana is currently one of the foremost underutilized industries. Poultry farming doesn’t need much technical expertise so as to accomplish yet in spite of that, the country’s poultry industry has been on a gentle decline over the past decade. Ghana remains a net importer of poultry products from countries like the US, Brazil and even the EU.

According to Ghana’s Ministry of Agriculture, the country’s local producers account for less than 30% of the poultry consumed within the country with the shortfall being imported into the country. this is often a dismal figure as long as it doesn’t require much to run a profitable poultry farm. you furthermore may need good poultry housing, the proper poultry breeds, good and affordable high-quality poultry feeds also nearly as good poultry management practices which will help poultry farmers in maximizing on their poultry production.

Part of the rationale why Ghana’s poultry industry is suffering is thanks to a severe lack of robust local investments. In many African countries like Kenya, poultry production is powered by small scale farmers also because of the large commercial producers. In Ghana, what’s required is for the tiny scale producers to master the proper knowledge for commercial poultry production and begin investing big in poultry farming.

We are offering professional poultry farming manuals which will help Ghanaian farmers to maximise on their poultry production and truly commercial their farming so as to start making profits from their ventures. Our manuals cover the whole spectrum of data produced by poultry experts which will assist you to achieve poultry farming

We offer several manuals which will be of use to aspiring Ghanaian commercial farmers. The manuals that we provide include the following:-

  1. Broiler Production Manual in Ghana
  2. Layer Production Manual in Ghana
  3. Free-Range Chicken Farming Manual for Ghana
  4. Poultry Feed Formulation Manual for Ghana
  5. Poultry Housing Manual for Ghana

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Just by way of explanation, the poultry feed formulation manual offers the ingredients and formulas that you simply can use to formulate your own feeds to the very best quality standards. one among the factors hindering successful commercial poultry farming in Ghana is that the poultry feeds is imported and this drives up the value of production. Our poultry feed formulation manual offers you the straightforward formula that’s employed by poultry feeds manufacturers throughout the planet.

Get in-tuned with us and grab all of your Ghana poultry production and start making poultry profits right here in Ghana.

Business Climate

Ghana’s wealth of resources, democratic form of government and dynamic economy makes it
undoubtedly one among Africa’s leading lights. 
growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent years.
Ghana has recently begun an ambitious but achievable reform programme to enhance the
the investment climate for both local and international investors.

These efforts have paid off initially with Ghana being ranked 114 among 190 economies consistent with the planet Bank Group 2019 Doing
Business report. The rank of Ghana marginally declined again to 118 getting into 2020.

according to the planet and, Ghana’s economy accelerated to eight in 2017, driven by the mining and
oil sectors, making it the second-fastest-growing African economy, trailing only Ethiopia. 
In 2018, Ghana’s economy continued to expand rapidly, albeit at a slower pace than the speed in
2017. Quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) growth was estimated at 5.4% within the half-moon of
2018; and 5.4% within the second quarter.
Ghana’s growth target for 2019 is 7.4% mainly to be driven by the industry sector, especially oil, gas
and mining. Industry’s growth is predicted to enhance to 9.7%; the agriculture sector is predicted to
grow by 7.3% on the rear of the govt flagship programs within the sector which can enhance
performance within the crops and livestock sub-sectors. The service sector growth, however, is projected
at 6.1%, slightly below the 2018 projection of 6.2% because the financial sector continues to get over its recent challenges.
According to a 2018 report by PwC (Doing Business and Investing in Ghana), Ghana is extremely committed to supporting and protecting private investors within the agriculture sector as reflected within the policies implemented by successive governments. this is often evidenced by Ghana’s performance with
regards to the USD’s !agriculture climate, Legal and Institutional Framework. Ghana offers
agribusinesses quick access to export markets in Europe at a lower cost than elsewhere in Africa.
Agro-processing businesses are given a five-year tax holiday. There also are location-based tax
rebates for agribusinesses engaged in manufacturing and custom duty exemptions for agricultural
and industrial machinery and equipment imported for investment purposes. Good investment
opportunities exist within the areas of agriculture and agro-processing sector, technological and
supporting services.
In the agriculture and agro-processing sectors, the precise investment opportunities include:
Production of improved seeds and agro-chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides); Processing of
some agricultural produce; Production of all agricultural products like cash crops, horticultural
crops and livestock for the national, regional and European Union (EU) markets;

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Fish farming; Production of wood and non-timber forest products (NTFP); Establishment of pulp paper
and panel industries; Establishment of wood plantations; and Provision of tree seedlings for
plantation species like teak.
In the area of technological and supporting services; Provision of tractors with basic implements.

Companies to supply and install cold-chain equipment; Supply of machinery to determine hatcheries
for day-old chicks; Processing machine manufacturers to provide agro-processing and packaging
equipment/plants are a number of investment opportunities. Other investment areas are; Suppliers

and those who finance the companies by building factories and technology, manufacturers of fishing nets, ropes and netting tools.

facilities (cages and earthen ponds); Producers of fish feed; Technological and consulting services;
Research and agriculture development services and Inspection and grading consistent with international standards to form the deliveries acceptable in international markets. These investment opportunities in Ghana still attract trade and investment from The Netherlands and therefore the Embassy in Ghana is prepared to support Dutch companies curious about investing
in Ghana as a part of its Trade and Investment promotion activities.

Sector overview

Commercial poultry production in Ghana are often categorized into large-scale (over 50,000 birds),
medium-scale (10,000 – 50,000 birds) and small-scale (less than 10,000 birds) enterprises.
Domestic commercial farms are privately owned by individuals or a family. consistent with Ghana
Poultry Project (GPP) here are 29 large scale commercial poultry farms currently in Ghana and
mostly found within the Ashanti region (13), Brong Ahafo (12) and Greater Accra region (4). These form about 20 per cent of the entire poultry sector, producing mainly eggs.

Most operate their own feed-mills. Some maintain a hatchery and parent stock. the extent of biosecurity practice is high in
the large-scale category. The medium-scale and therefore the small-scale categories comprise 80 per cent of the poultry sector and believe hatcheries for his or her day-old chicks and feed mills for his or her feed. The
medium-scale category also produces primarily eggs. Included within the small-scale category are
backyard poultry producers who mainly produce broiler birds. The medium and small-scale operators practice minimal biosecurity. This sometimes allows free-range and wild birds to realize access to those poultry houses, predisposing these operations to disease outbreaks like Avian Influenza. a number of the commercial poultry farmers produce broiler birds purchasable only during the festive seasons (Christmas, Easter, Eid ul Fitr, Eid ul Adha) when Ghanaians buy live chickens.
Most of the poultry producers also unload spent layer chickens at these times.

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Even though there are local hatcheries that produce day-old chicks, the standard is usually low, so most poultry farmers like better to buy imported day-old chicks, especially layer day-old chicks. In 2018,
Ghana imported 511,960 broiler day-old chicks and seven,130,999 layer day-old chicks (source GPP). Currently, there’s limited regulation on local hatcheries. the govt of Ghana is yet to pass
into law a hatchery bill, which can make sure that quality day-old chicks are produced from domestic

hatcheries. Currently, day-old chicks for commercial production are primarily produced by 15 local hatcheries and eight importers consistent with the Ghana Poultry Project survey administered in 2017. The
importers mostly import the day-old chicks from Netherlands and Belgium. Demand for day-old chicks exceeds supply by both local hatcheries and imports.

Broiler and layer birds are kept exclusively indoors on deep litter and/or in battery cages and ate up well-formulated diets. The broiler birds attain 2.0-2.25 kg live weight at six to seven weeks and are
ready for the market. Layer birds reach 16 weeks before pullets start laying eggs. Average industry egg production is 230 to 250 eggs per layer per annum. the typical cost per kg of manufacturing broilers in
Ghana is estimated at GH15 (USD 2.7) for large-scale producers and better for small-scale producers. The average weight of liveable to eat broiler birds is between 2 – 2.25kg which of dressed birds ranges between 1.5 – 1.9kg.

Feed production

Ghana’s poultry feed industry has shifted to producing layer feed thanks to the drop off in domestic
broiler production. About 80 per cent of feed produced by commercial feed millers is layer feed.
 However, there’s a seasonal feed demand from the larger producers who raise birds for the festive seasons. Poultry feed accounts for about 70 per cent of total animal feed produced in Ghana.

Feed manufacturers in Ghana are often categorized into commercial feed millers and on-farm selfmillers. Ghana has about 17 commercial feed mills with a complete installed operating capacity of 1,000
metric tons (MT) per day. of their capacity thanks to low demand from the local poultry industry. the typical amount of
compound feed produced in Ghana is about 10,000MT annually within the past few years.

Most small- and medium-scale poultry producers prefer feed concentrates because it’s cheap, convenient and fewer bulky for transportation.
The main ingredients for compound feed are locally produced maize or imported yellow maize and wheat bran. Maize typically forms about 60 per cent of total feed formulation consistent with  IFPRI Discussion paper (2017), “A Chicken and Maize Situation: The Poultry Feed Sector in most of the maize produced in Ghana, thirty per cent are consumed by the poultry production companies

prices in Ghana are increasing primarily thanks to the rising cost of maize. The GOG flagship program “Planting for Food and Jobs” is predicted to cause a discount in maize prices. Soybean meal inclusion in poultry feed is low thanks to its high cost. The inclusion level of soybean flour ranges from 10 to 18 per cent of the feed ration for layers and 15 to 25 per cent for broilers. Controlling animal feed costs is critical during this industry since it represents approximately 60 -70 per cent of the total cost (industry source). For this reason, feed manufacturers are switching
to low-cost substitutes like palm-kernel cake, groundnut cake and organic, by-products of agro-processing.

Currently, there’s an enormous feed mill of Koudijs – De Heus under construction in Tema and there’s talk
about a big African Development Bank project within the Savanna zone to supply more staple for the feed sector. Details on this program aren’t available yet. Currently, there’s an enormous feed mill of Koudijs – De Heus under construction in Tema and there’s talk about a big African Development Bank project within the Savanna zone to supply more staple for the feed sector.

Details on this program aren’t available yet.
Consumption patterns of households in urban areas in Ghana are heavily weighted towards imported frozen poultry products. the explanations for this trend are that it’s cheaper than locally produced poultry and it’s already pre-cut, like leg quarters and wings, and processed whole
chicken and gizzards.  

Furthermore, the rapid climb within the restaurant, hotel and nutriment sector has increased demand for frozen poultry products within the past few years. Local poultry processors in
Ghana lacks the infrastructure and equipment to supply chicken cuts that are preferred by most
consumers. In Ghana, poultry meat consumption is dominated by chicken meat, but other poultry
products consumed are guinea fowls, ducks, turkeys and ostrich. consistent with official sources, meat that s livestock and poultry add up to forty per cent of animal protein supply with
the rest coming from fish consistent with the 2017 USDA GAIN Annual Ghana Poultry report.

Source: Ghana Poultry Project Trade

Poultry imports to Ghana keep increasing thanks to increasing demand and therefore the decline in domestic commercial poultry meat production. Ghana poultry imports are supplied mainly from the United
States, Brazil and therefore the EU. Despite decreasing imports between 2014 and 2016, supplies from The United States capture over 40 per cent of market share, while European countries and Brazil have 25
per cent each of the market share. Ghana continues to be a destination for U.S. poultry thanks to the
strong relationships between importers and exporters and loyalty to U.S. poultry products.

Source: Ghana Poultry Project Institutional Setting

The Animal Production Directorate (APD) and therefore the Veterinary Services Directorate (VSD) of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) has the oversight responsibility of the Poultry sector and
other animals/livestock. Whiles APD oversees production issues, VSD takes care of health. Their roles are to make the sure effective and efficient implementation of state policies on livestock and
poultry. 
 

The control and eradication of diseases are completed by the Veterinary Services Directorate of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture
through vaccination and quarantine. Importation of day-old chicks and poultry vaccines to Ghana are also controlled by the Veterinary Services Directorate. Formal training in livestock production and health is provided by agricultural colleges travel by the
Human Resources and Manpower Development Directorate of MoFA and therefore the Universities.

The agricultural college’s award diplomas generally agriculture apart from the Animal Health and production College which awards diploma in veterinary science. the school’s award diploma and undergraduate degrees in agriculture and medicine, also as graduate degrees in animal
science.

Some Polytechnics and newly established universities undertake training in aspects of
animal science. There are several regulatory bodies that have the responsibility for ensuring feed internal control and
certification. These are (i) Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) which provides the quality for animal feeds, feed ingredient, eggs, etc. The Food and medicines Authority (FDA) sees food questions of safety including the inspection of feed mills and provides certification for the utilization of feed products and (vi) Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) inspects and assesses the appropriateness of the feed mills and feed additive facilities and provides certification to commence production.

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Food and Drugs Authority (FDA) ensures the security and wholesomeness of foods (including meat and milk and
their products) and therefore the safety and efficacy of veterinary drugs. The Animal Products Unit of FDA is
responsible for the regulation of processing; transport and storage of animal products (including eggs
and honey); Inspection and audit of meat processing and cold storage facilities; Training of personnel
in the processing, handling and storage of animal products; Consumer education on food safety in
relation to animal products. The Feed Safety Unit of FDA sees a strict adherence to Good Feed
Manufacturing Practices by industry to assure the security and quality of animal feed (imported and
locally manufactured).
The Ghana Veterinary Medical Association was formed in 1974 with the broad objective of helping in
the development of a viable and vigorous poultry and livestock industry so on increasing supply of
meat and other livestock products, to guard public health by the control of zoonotic diseases and
to alleviate pain and suffering in animals

Government Policy/Programs

To support the local poultry industry, in 2013 the govt of Ghana removed customs duties on poultry inputs like feed, additives, drugs and vaccines and has facilitated improved access to veterinary services. 

The policy limits imports to 60 per cent, meaning that importers must buy 40 per cent of their produce from local sources. albeit this project has not significantly impacted the world, there was a
reduction in imported chicken meat in 2015 and 2016. the general objective of achieving 40% local broiler sourcing and 60% imported broiler meat has not been achieved (see Table 1). In 2017, the
Government of Ghana also launched a flagship program, “Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ)”, aimed at creating food security and produce staple to feed the agro-processing industries while
creating jobs within the process. consistent with the Ashanti regional director of the Ministry of Food and
Agriculture, the introduction of this program helped the poultry sector to chop down cost and
decreased the number of imported feeds within the country (Daily Graphic, July 25, 2019).
On 25th of June, 2019, the President of Ghana launched the “Rearing for Food and Jobs” campaign
aimed at developing a competitive and more efficient livestock industry, which will increase domestic
production, reduce importation of livestock products, contribute to employment creation, and
improve livelihoods of livestock value chain actors. the govt has set an ambitious target to
invest within the poultry component of the program as a serious step to prevent the importation of chicken
into the country. consistent with the Minister of Food and Agriculture, Dr Owusu Afriyie Akoto, the
poultry component of “Rearing for Food and Jobs” is vital to the govt of Ghana because
Ghana cannot still import USD 380 million of poultry meat per annum when 20 years ago, the main target is on building the
appropriate infrastructure to spice up local production. Farmers are going to be furnished with required inputs
to produce about 20 tonnes of soya beans this year as a measure to urge more feed for the poultry
industry.
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research – Animal Research Institute ((CSIR-ARI) has also
embarked on an eight-week broiler feeding trial using the black soldier fly larvae (insert larvae) as
part of efforts to seek out cheaper sources of protein. the value of insect meal is often sold at half price the
cost of organic. This project was a part of scientific research dubbed, “insect feed for West Africa”
undertaken by the CSIR-ARI under the auspices of the Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences
International (CABI) and therefore the Sustainable Agricultural Intensification Research and Learning in Africa
(SARA). of these interventions are aimed toward revamping the poultry industry and make opportunities for Dutch entrepreneurs.
Donor interventions within the Poultry Sector
Currently, the sole donor supporting the Poultry sector in Ghana is that us Department of
Agriculture through the Ghana Poultry Program (GPP). it’s a five-year (2015- 2020) project being
implemented by ACDI/VOCA and Technoserve to expand local production and processing of poultry
meat and eggs in Ghana. The project aims at increasing the competitiveness of the poultry value

chain using an inclusive system approach. The target beneficiaries of the project include processors,
input suppliers, financial institutions, business service advisors and buyers. The project’s
interventions are in four areas; capacity building, financial services, training and market access.


General Bottlenecks


The sector is faced with many challenges including the standard of vaccines, a nascent hatchery sector,
the inability of local feed mills to satisfy local demand thanks to inadequate maize and soybean production
locally. At the assembly level, the main challenges include; inadequate bio-security systems, low-quality day-old chicks thanks to poor quality local hatcheries and lack of regulations to manage the
hatcheries, self-on-farm feed production, inefficient production systems, especially in feed wastage,
abuse of antibiotics and poor linkages between input suppliers and marketers. Limited processing
and cold chain facilities, high cost of local poultry production and inability to satisfy consumer
preference and competition from imported poultry products are a number of the challenges at the
processing and marketing level.
Opportunities
The increasing local demand for chicken and chicken products and therefore the challenges faced by the world currently present tons of opportunities for investment. At the input level, there’s a high demand for
poultry vaccines and feed. Poultry vaccines aren’t produced locally except the ND I2 vaccine
produced to combat New Castle Disease; the remainder is all imported to Ghana. This presents an
opportunity for investment in poultry vaccines. The over 70 million birds in Ghana provides an enormous
opportunity to take a position in poultry vaccines production locally. there’s also a requirement for a huge
investment opportunity in hatcheries and collaborations with existing hatcheries with technical
support. the standard of day-old chicks hatched in Ghana is deemed to be low, so most poultry
farmers like better to buy imported day-old chicks, especially layer day-old chicks. In 2018, Ghana
imported 511,960 broiler day-old chicks and seven,130,999 layer day-old chicks. Currently, there is
limited regulation of local hatcheries. There also are inadequate testing facilities for feed making it
difficult for farmers to check the locally produced feed. there’s also the necessity for investment in testing
facilities for carcass and water thanks to the rarity for such facilities.
At the assembly level, farmers have very limited knowledge in feed formulation making it difficult
to optimize their formulations. quite 80% of poultry farmers in Ghana produce their own feed
because of the value of prey on the market. Feed cost constitutes about 60%-70% of the total cost of
production, making the cost per live bird very high. Partnerships with local training institutions
to run low courses for poultry farmers within the areas of bio-security systems, feed formulation, use of
veterinary medicines, administering of vaccines, etc. are often explored. Opportunities also exist in
large scale quality feed production. 
(transport, storage, etc,). Farmers even have the huge installed capacity for bird production but are
constrained by inadequate capital making them good candidates for out-growers for either
for broiler or layer production.

the poultry has been a gentle growth within the production of chicken locally since the year 2000. The
production of chicken increased from 20.5 million in 2000 to 74.5 million in 2017 as shown in figure
1 below. There was, however, a decrease in the production of three .8% in 2005, from 29.5 million in 2004 to
28.4 million in 2005. There was no change in chicken production in 2015 and 2016.  million, showing a mean annual growth of 8.7%.

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